WHAT TO SAY…

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Full text of apology to indigenous   Australians

on the occasion of the first sitting of   Parliament, Canberra, A.C.T.

February 12, 2008 – 4:40PM

Today we honour the Indigenous peoples of this land, the oldest   continuing

cultures in human history.

We reflect on their past mistreatment.

We reflect in particular on the mistreatment of those who were stolen  

generations – this blemished chapter in our nation’s history.

The time has now come for the nation to turn a new page in

Australia’s   history by righting the wrongs of the past and so moving

forward with   confidence to the future.

We apologise for the laws and policies of successive Parliaments and  

governments that have inflicted profound grief, suffering and loss on these  

our fellow Australians.

We apologise especially for the removal of Aboriginal and Torres   Strait Islander

children from their families, their communities and their   country.

For the pain, suffering and hurt of these stolen generations, their   descendants

and for their families left behind, we say sorry.

To the mothers and the fathers, the brothers and the sisters, for the   breaking up

of families and communities, we say sorry.

And for the indignity and degradation thus inflicted on a proud people   and a

proud culture, we say sorry.

We the Parliament of Australia respectfully request that this apology  

be received in the spirit in which it is offered as part of the healing of  

the nation.

For the future we take heart; resolving that this new page in the   history of

our great continent can now be written.

We today take this first step by acknowledging the past and laying  

claim to a future that embraces all Australians.

A future where this Parliament resolves that the injustices of the  

past must never, never happen again.

A future where we harness the determination of all Australians,  

 Indigenous

and non-Indigenous, to close the gap that lies between us in life  

expectancy, educational achievement and economic opportunity.

A future where we embrace the possibility of new solutions to enduring  

problems where old approaches have failed.

A future based on mutual respect, mutual resolve and mutual  

responsibility.

A future where all Australians, whatever their origins, are truly  

equal partners, with equal opportunities and with an equal stake in shaping

the   next chapter in the history of this great country, Australia.

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EXAM IS COMING SOON

Australian Aboriginal Children

The Stolen Generation

                       

The Stolen Generation

The policies that produced the Stolen   Generation brought with it thousands of Aboriginal people that were deprived   of their families, the loss of the love of the mothers as well as being   deprived of an understanding of their rich cultural heritage. The Stolen   Generation, in my humble view, remains one of the most shameful episodes in   the history of Australia and one that demands a full apology from the leaders   of this country to the Aboriginal people. Certainly, the possibility of a   meaningful reconciliation between black and white Australia seems very unlikely   to proceed in a meaningful manner until such an apology is forthcoming.

The Stolen Generation is a term used to describe the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, usually of mixed descent, who were forcefully removed from their families between approximately 1910 and (officially) 1969 by Australian Government agencies and church missions. This was done under various state acts of parliament, denying the rights of parents and making all Aboriginal children wards of the state. The policy typically involved the removal of children into internment camps, orphanages and other institutions.

Probably the origin of the practice of separating Aboriginal children from their parents lay in the desire to turn them into ‘useful’ citizens. The earliest Aboriginal institutions in Australia were church missions, where parents were at first allowed to live nearby. They were set up to teach the church virtues of obedience, thriftiness and hard work. Indeed, this was possibly the positive side of the missionaries’ work. They wanted to create an Aboriginal working class and present it to those whites of the colony who thought Aborigines were little better that animals. There was, however, a negative side which hardened when the missionaries were confronted by parents who wished to take their children away from the schools. The missionaries’ answer was to separate the children either by trickery or force.

By 1850 all the half-dozen missions which had come and gone in eastern Australia had, at one time or another, tried to raise Aboriginal children separated from their parents. Sadly, little is known about the children of these institutions other than their names and whether they physically survived the trauma of separation. Most probably, what they endured emotionally was not very different from the feelings of loss, anger bewilderment or grief experienced by their parents.

Apart from the desire to turn the Aboriginal children into “useful” citizens, the Christian missions also felt that by separating the children from their families and their traditional tribal values, then they could be more readily converted to Christianity. Thus the children were not only separated from their families but also from their ancient and traditional tribal culture.

At the governmental level, the thinking was indeed much more racial with differing motivation before and after the Second World War. Before the Second World War, the removal of the “half caste” children from their clans resulted from a perceived need to solve the Aboriginal problem once and for all. At this time, it was generally believed by those responsible for administering Aboriginal policy that the “full blood” would eventually die out while at the same time the number of ‘half castes” was, at least, in some states, starting to rise quite rapidly. Indeed, it was commonly argued that ‘half castes’ had inherited the worst human qualities of both Aborigine and Europeans. It was frequently asserted that that their presence undermined social cohesion and threatened the underlying fabric of the White Australia Policy. For these reasons, the solution of the ‘half caste’ problem was given a high priority.

The solutions proposed were certainly genocidal as they involved a complex program of eugenics involving, among other things, the effective prohibition of mating between “full bloods” and “half castes”, the systematic removal of the “half caste” children from their families and the encouragement of marriage between “half castes’ and whites. This program was referred to as ” breeding out the colour”.

After the Second World War the practice of Aboriginal child removal continued. The rationale of the policy makers had now changed, however, with reference to the idea of “breeding out the colour” no longer in vogue. The policy of the biological absorption of the ‘half caste’ was replaced by the policy of the cultural assimilation of the Aboriginal people as a whole. Certainly, while the policy of the removal of Aboriginal children remained racist, the genocidal dimension of the policy had now faded into history.