ENGLISH AND AMERICAN CULTURE

           MULTIRACIAL SOCIETIES: LONDON AND NEW YORK

NEW YORK is considered a melting pot because, with time, generations of immigrants abandouned their language and traditions to become well assimilated into the American society. They melted together to for the American society, even if there is Little Italy and Chinatown, that are two areas where people coming from Italy and from China live.

The first Italian Immigrants arrived to America at the end of 19th century or at the beginning of the 20th century. They arrived in New York by ship and the first thing they saw was the Statue of Liberty. They were brought to Ellis Island where there was the immigration centre where immigrants were checked in order to see if they were ill or not. Only people who hadn’t any illness could enter New York, the others were sent again home or put in hospital for 40 days. That’s why many people couldn’t find their family alresdy enter the city.

In the past Ellis Island was a fort, then an arsenal, at the half of 19th century, it became the Immigration Centre and now it is a museum.

LONDON is considered a salad bowl. With time immigrants didn’t melt to form the English society ,didn’t abandoun their culture but they mantained their tradition and they live in harmony. that’s why in Britain diversity is a positive aspect and the English Government encourage the Immigrants to mantain their own tradition in the respect of the English laws.

MARTIN LUTHER KING

Biography

Martin  Luther King, Jr., (January 15, 1929-April 4, 1968) was born  Michael Luther King, Jr., but later had his name changed to  Martin. His grandfather began the family’s long tenure as pastors  of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, serving from 1914 to  1931; his father has served from then until the present, and from  1960 until his death Martin Luther acted as co-pastor. Martin  Luther attended segregated public schools in Georgia, graduating  from high school at the age of fifteen; he received the B. A.  degree in 1948 from Morehouse College, a distinguished Negro  institution of Atlanta from which both his father and grandfather  had graduated. After three years of theological study at  Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania where he was elected  president of a predominantly white senior class, he was awarded  the B.D. in 1951. With a fellowship won at Crozer, he enrolled in  graduate studies at Boston University, completing his residence for the  doctorate in 1953 and receiving the degree in 1955. In Boston he  met and married Coretta Scott, a young woman of uncommon  intellectual and artistic attainments. Two sons and two daughters  were born into the family.
In 1954, Martin Luther King became pastor of the Dexter  Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Always a strong  worker for civil rights for members of his race, King was, by  this time, a member of the executive committee of the National  Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the leading  organization of its kind in the nation. He was ready, then, early  in December, 1955, to accept the leadership of the first great  Negro nonviolent demonstration of contemporary times in the  United States, the bus boycott described by Gunnar Jahn in his  presentation speech in honor of the laureate. The boycott lasted  382 days. On December 21, 1956, after the Supreme Court of the  United States had declared unconstitutional the laws requiring  segregation on buses, Negroes and whites rode the buses as  equals. During these days of boycott, King was arrested, his home  was bombed, he was subjected to personal abuse, but at the same  time he emerged as a Negro leader of the first rank.
In 1957 he was elected president of the Southern Christian  Leadership Conference, an organization formed to provide new  leadership for the now burgeoning civil rights movement. The  ideals for this organization he took from Christianity; its  operational techniques from Gandhi. In the eleven-year period  between 1957 and 1968, King traveled over six million miles and  spoke over twenty-five hundred times, appearing wherever there  was injustice, protest, and action; and meanwhile he wrote five  books as well as numerous articles. In these years, he led a  massive protest in Birmingham, Alabama, that caught the attention  of the entire world, providing what he called a coalition of  conscience. and inspiring his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”, a  manifesto of the Negro revolution; he planned the drives in  Alabama for the registration of Negroes as voters; he directed  the peaceful march on Washington, D.C., of 250,000 people to whom  he delivered his address, “l Have a Dream”, he conferred with  President John F. Kennedy and campaigned for President Lyndon B.  Johnson; he was arrested upwards of twenty times and assaulted at  least four times; he was awarded five honorary degrees; was named  Man of the Year by Time magazine in 1963; and became not  only the symbolic leader of American blacks but also a world  figure.
At the age of thirty-five, Martin Luther King, Jr., was the  youngest man to have received the Nobel Peace Prize. When  notified of his selection, he announced that he would turn over  the prize money of $54,123 to the furtherance of the civil rights  movement.
On the evening of April 4, 1968, while standing on the balcony of  his motel room in Memphis, Tennessee, where he was to lead a  protest march in sympathy with striking garbage workers of that  city, he was assassinated.

Martin Luther King Day in United States

Quick Facts

Martin Luther King Day marks the anniversary of the date of birth of the influential American civil right leader of the same name.

Local names

Name Language
Martin   Luther King Day English
Día de Martin Luther King Spanish

Martin Luther King Day 2012

Monday, January 16, 2012

Martin Luther King Day 2013

Monday, January 21, 2013
List of dates for other years

Martin Luther King Day is a federal holiday held on the third Monday of January. It celebrates the life and achievements of Martin Luther King Jr., an influential American civil rights leader. He is most well-known for his campaigns to end racial segregation on public transport and for racial equality in the United States.

“The Stone Of Hope” memorial by master sculptor Lei Yixin was opened to the public in West Potomac Park, Washington DC, on August 22, 2011. ©iStockphoto.com/Camrocker

What do people do?

Martin Luther King Day is a relatively new federal holiday and there are few long standing traditions. It is seen as a day to promote equal rights for all Americans, regardless of their background. Some educational establishments mark the day by teaching their pupils or students about the work of Martin Luther King and the struggle against racial segregation and racism. In recent years, federal legislation has encouraged Americans to give some of their time on this day as volunteers in citizen action groups.

Martin Luther King Day, also known as Martin Luther King’s birthday and Martin Luther King Jr Day, is combined with other days in different states. For example, it is combined with Civil Rights Day in Arizona and New Hampshire, while it is observed together with Human Rights Day in Idaho. It is also a day that is combined with Robert E. Lee’s birthday in some states.

Background

Martin Luther King was an important civil rights activist. He was a leader in the movement to end racial segregation in the United States. His most famous address was the “I Have A Dream” speech. He was an advocate of non-violent protest and became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. He was assassinated in 1968.

In 1968, shortly after Martin Luther King died, a campaign was started for his birthday to become a holiday to honor him. After the first bill was introduced, trade unions lead the campaign for the federal holiday. It was endorsed in 1976. Following support from the musician Stevie Wonder with his single “Happy Birthday” and a petition with six million signatures, the bill became law in 1983. Martin Luther King Day was first observed in 1986, although it was not observed in all states until the year 2000.

QUESTIONS ABOUT MARTIN LUTHER KING

1)   WHAT INFORMATION CAN YOU HAVE FROM THE NAME “ Martin Luther King”?

2 ) What was the segregation in  the USA?

3 ) What’s the link between Rosa  Parks and the mass-boycott  of      Montgomery bus company?

4) Why was the march on Washington DC  in 1963 so important?

5) What was THE CIVIL  RIGHT ACT?

6)   What was the VOTING RIGHT ACT?

7)   What were Martin Luther King’s methods of fight?

8)   When did Martin Luther King win the Nobel Peace Prize?

9)   What is M.L.King’s most  famous speech and why?

10)                        When was he killed? And where?

NEW YORK

                                

NEW YORK

New York, also known by the popular term “the big apple”is the most cosmopolitan city in America and an important financial and cultural centre too.

Finding your way around Manhattan is very easy because the layout of the city is composed by streets and avenues which divided  the territory. With the exception of Lower Manhattan (below 14th Street), which was inhabited and developed before the rest of the city, streets are numbered and run from East to West. Avenues run from North to South and are marked with numbers or letters. Some avenues also have names, which are easy to remember: Park, Lexington, Madison, Broadway, Avenue of the Americas (6th Avenue), Varick St. (7th), Central Park West (8th), Columbus (9th aVenue), and Amsterdam (10th).

It is often said that New York is a city of multiple personalities. All boroughs have different characteristics, which contribute to the varying lifestyles of their residents. Located on one of the world’s largest natural harbors,[21] New York City consists of five boroughs which were consolidated in 1898:[22] The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island

Financial District

The southern part of the island of Manhattan,  below City Park Hall, is the financial heart of New York City and the  world. It has several beautiful buildings and historical sites such as the New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, Trinity Church, the Federal Reserve Bank, the Old Custom’s House, and many others.

Chinatown is the  most famous borough, containing the highest concentration of Chinese inhabitants in the western hemisphere – at least 150,000 Chinese residents in a  2 mile-square area. Chinatown is also probably the most eclectic area of Manhattan. With its booming fish and fruit markets and colourful souvenir shops, Chinatown impresses visitors as an exotic and very lively marketplace. It offers an affordable lifestyle with cheap and ethnic shops, inexpensive shopping and convenient transportation. Most buildings are turn-of-the-century residential walk-upsto  and cast-iron buildings, but there are also a few recently built and/or modernized apartment buildings with elevators and additional amenities.[2]

Little Italy

Little Italy is a neighborhood in lower Manhattan, New York City, once known for its large population of Italians.[1] Today the neighborhood of Little Italy consists of Italian stores and restaurants.

The festival of San Gennaro

The Feast of San Gennaro originally was once only a one-day religious commemoration. It began in September, 1926 with the new arrival of immigrants from Naples. The Italian immigrants congregated along Mulberry Street in Manhattan’s Little Italy to celebrate San Gennaro as the Patron Saint of Naples. The Feast of San Gennaro is a large street fair, lasting 11 days, that takes place every September along Mulberry Street between Houston and Canal Streets.[3] The festival is as an annual celebration of Italian culture and the Italian-American community.

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Much of the neighborhood has been absorbed and engulfed by Chinatown, as immigrants from China moved to the area. What was once Little Italy has essentially shrunk into a single street which serves as a restaurant area but which has few Italian residents. The northern part of Little Italy, near Houston Street, ceased to be recognizably Italian, and eventually became the neighborhood known today as NoLIta, an abbreviation for North of Little Italy..

Italian culture and heritage website ItalianAware called the dominance of Italians in the area, “relatively short lived.” It attributes this to the quick financial prosperity many Italians achieved, which afforded them the opportunity to leave the cramped neighborhood for areas in Brooklyn and Queens. The site also goes on to state that the area is currently referred to as Little Italy more out of respect and nostalgia than as a reflection of true ethnic population. [5]

In 2010, Little Italy and Chinatown were listed in a single historic district on the National Register of Historic Places

 

Nolita

Nolita (North of Little Italy) lies east of SoHo and north of Little Italy, and used to be the destination and the favored neighborhood of Italian immigrants. Nowadays, Nolita has lost most of its Italian atmosphere along with Little Italy itself, although it has retained a number of European restaurants and bakeries. The neighborhood is home to old-time residents as well as artists and young professionals, with a particularly large number of residents working in the film industry. Nolita has never quite become as trendy as SoHo or TriBeCa, but its residents enjoy the slightly lower rents and smaller crowds. The neighborhood certainly has its share of expensive restaurants and up-scale shops. Buildings here are a combination of SoHo-style cast-iron lofts and Lower East Side walk-up tenements.

TriBeCa

TriBeCa (Triangle Below Canal) is the historical site of the Washington market, which used to be the major food product distribution hub. Misleadingly, the area is more trapezoidal than triangular in shape, and stretches from Broome to Barclay Street and from Broadway to the Hudson River. During the 1970s the area’s abandoned spaces were transformed by young artists and families, and today it is an area where there are modern office and fantastic luxury condos.. Another aspect is the high quality of the schools:  the acclaimed elementary school PS 234 and the Stuyvesant High School, one of New York City’s prized Specialized Science High Schools, Most of TriBeCa’s residents spend their day  to either Midtown or the Financial District, which are both just a short ride away.

SoHo

SoHo (South of Houston) was a centre for textile industry following the Civil War; By the mid-20th century the area lost its value to the industry and this borough transformed itself. The neighborhood developed from these depressed industrial roots into its present affluent status through what is now even called the “SoHo effect”: young artists and families move into the huge lofts with large windows and low rents left by industry, creating an attractive and unique area that gradually gentrifies as its desirability grows. Nowadays, the cobble-stone streets, cozy cafes and trendy boutiques attract many tourists and shoppers, and buyers will be hard pressed to find anything under $1 million. 19th century cast-iron warehouses are being rebuilt into condo and co-op buildings and offer a luxury lifestyle in the heart of Manhattan.

SoHo runs roughly from Houston Street in the north to Lafayette Street in the east, Canal Street in the south, and Varick Street on the west.

Greenwich Village, West Village

Once the center of Bohemian culture and home to all sorts of artists and political movements, Greenwich Village still exudes an air of creative and intellectual freedom despite its high rents. The Village, as it is often simply referred to, is filled with sense of community and pride for the historic significance of every building and street. It has a unique feel, drawing from its history as a separate village from the rest of the New York settlement, which is mostly easy to find in its unique non-grid street layouts. Perhaps best known for being the home of New York University and Washington Square Park, the area is also home to the historic Jefferson Market Library, Christopher Street, Stonewall Inn, Winston Churchill Square, as well as numerous sites popular for their affiliation with celebrities, books and movies.

Living in the Village will enable you to enjoy the serenity of narrow streets, elegant little squares and gardens, and turn-of-the-century townhouses and brick walk-ups. Unique architecture and the virtual absence of chain stores create an illusion that you are in a different city; however, a short stroll will bring you to either to the shopping Mecca of SoHo, to the galleries of Chelsea, the trendy clubs and restaurants of the Meatpacking district, or to the busy thoroughfares of Midtown.

Greenwich Village is bounded by Broadway on the east, the Hudson River on the west, Houston Street on the south, and 14th Street on the north, with Sixth Avenue demarking the approximate begin of West Village.

HARLEM

Harlem is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, which since the 1920s has been a major African-American residential, cultural and business center. Originally a Dutch village, formally organized in 1658,[2] it is named after the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands. Harlem was annexed to New York City in 1873.

Black residents began to arrive en masse in 1904, with numbers fed by the Great Migration. In the 1920s and 1930s, the neighborhood was the focus of the “Harlem Renaissance“, an outpouring of artistic and professional works without precedent in the American black community. However, with job losses in the time of the Great Depression and the deindustrialization of New York City after World War II, rates of crime and poverty increased significantly.

Harlem IS from the East River west to the Hudson River between 155th Street

Central Harlem begins at 110th Street, at the northern boundary of Central Park;

Spanish Harlem is in Eastern Harlem and extends south to 96th Street, while in the west the neighborhood begins north of Upper West Side, which gives an irregular border west of Morningside Avenue. Harlem’s boundaries have changed over the years; as Ralph Ellison said, “Wherever Negroes live uptown is considered Harlem.”

BRONX

[3] The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City. It is also known as Bronx County, the last of the 62 counties of New York State:IT is the   borough that is located primarily on the mainland (a very small portion of Manhattan,). The Bronx’s population is 1,400,761 according to the 2010 United States Census.[1] The borough has a land area of 42 square miles (109 km2), making it the fourth-largest in land area of the five boroughs, the fourth most populated, and the third-highest in density of population.[2][3]

After the 1930s, Irish Americans started moving further north, and German Americans followed suit in the 1940s, as did many Italian Americans in the 1950s and Jews in the 1960s. As the older generation retired, many moved to Florida. The migration has left an African American and Hispanic (mostly Puerto Rican and Dominican) population, along with some Caucasian communities in the far southeastern and northwestern parts of the county.

STATEN ISLAND

Staten Island  /ˌstætən ˈlənd/ is a borough of New York City, New York, United States, located in the southwest part of the city. Staten Island is separated from New Jersey by the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull, and from the rest of New York by New York Bay. With a population of 468,730, Staten Island is the least populated of the five boroughs but is the third largest in area at 59 sq mi (153 km2). The Borough of Staten Island is coextensive with Richmond County, the southernmost county in the state of New York. Until 1975, the borough was officially named the Borough of Richmond.[3] Staten Island has been sometimes called “the forgotten borough” by inhabitants who feel neglected by the city government.[4][5]

Staten Island is overall the most suburban of the five boroughs of New York City.

Staten Island is the only one of the five boroughs of New York City that does not have below-ground rapid transit. The free Staten Island Ferry connects the borough to Manhattan and is a popular tourist attraction, providing views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island and lower Manhattan.

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